Tendon and enthesis histology – techniques tailored to specific research questions


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Eur Cell Mater. 2022 May 24;43:228-251. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v043a16.


The musculoskeletal system consists of different components comprising a wide range of tissue types, tendons being one part. Tendon degeneration or rupture has a high prevalence in all age groups, often with poor surgical treatment outcomes such as chronic pain and high recurrence rates. Therefore, much effort has been directed to further develop diagnostic and therapeutic methods as well as reconstructive techniques, including the use of adequate brackets or implants. Diagnostic approaches and advanced stages of preclinical studies will inevitably include histological examination of pathologically affected tissue. The present study presents adequate histological techniques related to the tendon, including the embedding of soft and hard tissue specimens in different media. Also considered are specimens that contain residual implant materials or that have been subjected to standard staining protocols and immunohistochemical procedures. The study further examines cell and tendon structure to detect degenerative, fibrotic or inflammatory conditions and possible foreign body responses to implanted materials. Infraspinatus tendons from preclinical studies performed on rat and sheep samples, as well as human biceps tendon samples, were used as sample materials.

PMID:35608562 | DOI:10.22203/eCM.v043a16


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